Tuesday, 4 September 2012

Itsy: Documenting the Bit-Twiddling & Voodoo Magic

Over the last few months I've been developing Itsy, a tiny interpreter for a subset of Forth. An overview can be found in the following posts:

To save time I've described the system as a whole while skipping some of the implementation details. Mike Adams noticed my omission and performed a complete analysis of Itsy, fully commenting the code.

Mike's analysis will make it much easier to change the threading model and port Itsy to a microcontroller when I finally get round to it. Thanks Mike.

Here's Itsy with all the bit-twiddling hacks and voodoo magic documented by Mike:


; Itsy Forth - Macros
;   Written by John Metcalf
;   Commentary by Mike Adams
; Itsy Forth was written for use with NASM, the "Netwide Assembler"
; (http://www.nasm.us/). It uses a number of macros to deal with the tedium
; of generating the headers for the words that are defined in Itsy's source
; code file. The macros, and the explanations of what they're doing, are
; listed below:

; First, two variables are defined for use by the macros:
        ; link is the initial value for the first link field that'll
        ; be defined. It's value will be updated with each header
        ; that's created.
        %define link 0

        ; A bitmask that'll be called "immediate" will be used to
        ; encode the flag into the length bytes of word names in order
        ; to indicate that the word will be of the immediate type.
        %define immediate 080h

; The first macro defined is the primary one used by the others, "head".
; It does the lion's share of the work for the other macros that'll be
; defined afterwards. Its commands perform the following operations:

        ; The first line of the macro declares it's name as "head".
        ; The 4 in this line signifies that it expects to receive
        ; 4 parameters when it's invoked: the string that will be the
        ; word's name and will be encoded into the header along with
        ; the string's name; an "execution tag" name that will have the
        ; prefix "xt_" attached to it and will be used as a label for
        ; the word's code field; a flag that will be 080h if the word
        ; will be immediate and a 0 otherwise; and the label for the
        ; word's runtime code, whose address will be put into the
        ; word's code field.
        %macro head 4

        ; Okay, what we're doing in this odd-looking bit of code is
        ; declaring a variable called "%%link" that's local only to this
        ; macro and is independent of the earlier variable we declared
        ; as "link". It's a label that will represent the current
        ; location in the object code we're creating. Then we lay down
        ; some actual object code, using the "dw" command to write the
        ; current value of "link" into the executable file.
        %%link dw link

        ; Here's one of the tricky parts. We now redefine the value of
        ; "link" to be whatever the current value of "%%link" is, which
        ; is basically the address of the link field that was created
        ; during this particular use of this macro. That way, the next
        ; time head is called, the value that will be written into the
        ; code in the "dw" command above will be whatever the value of
        ; "%%link" was during THIS use of the macro. This way, each time
        ; head is called, the value that'll be written into the new
        ; link field will be the address that was used for the link
        ; field the previous time head was called, which is just how
        ; we want the link fields to be in a Forth dictionary. Note that
        ; the first time that head is called, the value of link was
        ; predefined as 0, so that the link field of the first word in
        ; the dictionary will contain the value of 0 to mark it as
        ; being the first word in the dictionary.
        %define link %%link

        ; Now the name field. The first argument passed to head is the
        ; string defining the new word's name. The next line in the macro
        ; measures the length of the string (the "%1" tells it that it's
        ; supposed to look at argument #1) and assigns it to a macro-local
        ; variable called "%%count".
        %strlen %%count %1

        ; In this next line, we're writing data into the object code on
        ; a byte-by-byte basis. We first write a byte consisting of the
        ; value of argument 3 (which is 080h if we're writing the header
        ; for an immediate word or a 0 otherwise) added to the length of
        ; the name string to produce the length byte in the header. Then
        ; we write the name string itself into the file.
        db %3 + %%count,%1

        ; Okay, don't get confused by the "+" in this next line. Take
        ; careful note of the spaces; the actual command is "%+", which
        ; is string concatenation, not numeric addition. We're going to
        ; splice a string together. The first part consists of the "xt_",
        ; then we splice the macro's 2nd argument onto it. The resulting
        ; string is used as the head's "execution tag", the address of
        ; it's code field. This label is then used for the "dw" command
        ; that writes the value of argument #4 (the address of the word's
        ; runtime code) into the header's code field.
        xt_ %+ %2 dw %4

        ; As you might guess, the next line marks the end of the
        ; macro's definition. The entire header's been defined at this
        ; point, and we're now ready for the data field, whether it's
        ; composed of assembly code, a list of Forth words, or the
        ; numeric data for a variable or constant.

; For example, calling head with the following line:
;      head,'does>',does,080h,docolon
; will produce the following header code...
;               dw (address of link of previous header)
;               db 085h,'does>'
;      xt_does  dw docolon
; ...and records the address of this header's link field so that it can
; be written into the link field of the next word, just as the address
; of the previous link field was written into this header.
; This method saves the programmer a lot of tedium in manually generating
; the code for word headers when writing a Forth system's kernel in
; assembly language. Note that argument #2 is surrounded by single quotes.
; That's the format that the assembler expects to see when being told to
; lay down a string of characters byte-by-byte in a db command, so they
; have to be present when they're given as an arg to this macro so that
; the macro puts them in their proper place.

; The next macro is called "primitive", and is used for setting up a header
; for a word written in assembly language.
        ; Here we declare the definition of the macro called "primitive".
        ; Note, though, the odd manner in which the number of required
        ; arguments is stated. Yes, that really does mean that it can
        ; take from 2 to 3 arguments. Well, what does it do if the user
        ; only gives it 2? That's what that 0 is: the default value that's
        ; to be used for argument #3 if the user doesn't specify it. Most
        ; of the time he won't; the only time arg #3 will be specifically
        ; given will be if the user is defining an immediate word.
        %macro primitive 2-3 0

        ; All primitive does is to pass its arguments on to head, which
        ; does most of the actual work. It passes on the word name and
        ; the execution tag name as-is. Parameter #3 will be given the
        ; default value of 0 unless the user specifically states it.
        ; This is meant to allow the user to add "immediate" to the
        ; macro invocation to create an immediate word. The 4th arg,
        ; "$+2", means that when head goes to write the address of the
        ; run-time code into the code field, the address it's going to
        ; use will be 2 bytes further along than the code field address,
        ; i.e. the address of the start of the code immediately after
        ; the code field. (The "$" symbol is used by most assemblers
        ; to represent the address of the code that's currently being
        ; assembled.)
        head %1,%2,%3,$+2

        ; End of the macro definition.

; The macro "colon" operates very similarly to "primitive", except that
; it's used for colon definitions:
        ; Declare the macro, with 2 to 3 arguments, using 0 for the default
        ; value of arg #3 if one isn't specifically given.
        %macro colon 2-3 0

        ; Pass the args on to head, using docolon as the runtime code.
        head %1,%2,%3,docolon

        ; End of macro definition.

; The rest of the macros all require a specific number of arguments, since
; none of them have the option of being immediate. This one defines
; a constant:

        ; Macro name is, unsurprisingly, "constant", and gets 3 arguments.
        ; As with head and primitive, the first 2 are the word's name and
        ; the label name that'll be used for the word. The third argument
        ; is the value that we want the constant to hold.
        %macro constant 3

        ; Use the head macro. Args 1 and 2, the names, get passed on as-is.
        ; Constants are never defined as immediate (though it's an intriguing
        ; idea; a constant whose value is one thing when compiling and
        ; another when interpreting might be useful for something), so arg #3
        ; passed on to head is always a 0, and arg #4 will always be doconst,
        ; the address of the runtime code for constants.
        head %1,%2,0,doconst

        ; Similar to the way that the label is created for the execution
        ; tags, here we create a label for the data field of the constant,
        ; though this time we're prefixing the name with "val_" instead
        ; of the "xt_" used for the execution tags. Then we use a dw to
        ; write constant's arg #3, the constant's value, into the code.
        val_ %+ %2 dw %3

        ; End of the definition.

; The macro for variables is very similar to the one for constants.

        ; Macro name "variable", 3 arguments, with arg #3 being the
        ; initial value that will be given to the variable.
        %macro variable 3

        ; Just like in "constant", except that the runtime code is dovar.
        head %1,%2,0,dovar

        ; Exact same line as used in "constant", with the same effects.
        val_ %+ %2 dw %3

        ; End of the definition.

; That's the last of the macros. They're accessed through the
; "%include macros.asm" command near the beginning of Itsy's
; source code file. Or, if you prefer, you can remove the
; %include command and splice the above code directly
; into itsy.asm in its place.


; Itsy Forth
;    Written by John Metcalf
;    Commentary by John Metcalf and Mike Adams
; Itsy Forth was written for use with NASM, the "Netwide Assembler"
; that's available for free download (http://www.nasm.us/).
; The command line for assembling Itsy is:
;      nasm itsy.asm -fbin -o itsy.com
; If you wish to have an assembly listing, give it this command:
;      nasm itsy.asm -fbin -l itsy.lst -o itsy.com
; Implementation notes:
; Register Usage:
;    sp - data stack pointer.
;    bp - return stack pointer.
;    si - Forth instruction pointer.
;    di - pointer to current XT (CFA of word currently being executed).
;    bx - TOS (top of data stack). The top value on the data stack is not
;         actually kept on the CPU's data stack. It's kept in the BX register.
;         Having it in a register like this speeds up the operation of
;         the primitive words. They don't have to take the time to pull a
;         value off of the stack; it's already in a register where it can
;         be used right away!
;    ax, cd, dx - Can all be freely used for processing data. The other
;         registers can still be used also, but only with caution. Their
;         contents must be pushed to the stack and then restored before
;         exiting from the word or calling any other Forth words. LOTS of
;         potential for program crashes if you don't do this correctly.
;         The notable exception is the DI register, which can (and is, below)
;         used pretty freely in assembly code, since the concept of a pointer
;         to the current CFA is rather irrelevant in assembly.
; Structure of an Itsy word definition:
;     # of
;    Bytes:   Description:
;    ------   ---------------------------------------------------------
;      2      Link Field. Contains the address of the link field of the
;                definition preceding this one in the dictionary. The link
;                field of the first def in the dictionary contains 0.
;    Varies   Name Field. The first byte of the name field contains the length
;                of the name; succeeding bytes contain the ASCII characters of
;                the name itself. If the high bit of the length is set, the
;                definition is tagged as being an "immediate" word.
;      2      Code Field. Contains the address of the executable code for
;                the word. For primitives, this will likely be the address
;                of the word's own data field. Note that the header creation
;                macros automatically generate labels for the code field
;                addresses of the words they're used to define, though the
;                CFA labels aren't visible in the code shown below. The
;                assembler macros create labels, known as "execution tags"
;                or XTs, for the code field of each word.
;    Varies   Data Field. Contains either a list of the code field addresses
;                of the words that make up this definition, or assembly-
;                language code for primitives, or numeric data for variables
;                 and constants and such.

; Beginning of actual code.
; Include the definitions of the macros that are used in NASM to create
; the headers of the words. See macros.asm for more details.
%include "macros.asm"

; Define the location for the stack. -256 decimal = 0ff00h
stack0  equ -256

; Set the starting point for the executable code. 0100h is the standard
; origin for programs running under MS-DOS or its equivalents.
        org 0100h

; Jump to the location of the start of Itsy's initialization code.
        jmp xt_abort+2

; -------------------
; System Variables
; -------------------

        ; state - ( -- addr ) true = compiling, false = interpreting
        variable 'state',state,0

        ; >in - ( -- addr ) next character in input buffer
        variable '>in',to_in,0

        ; #tib - ( -- addr ) number of characters in the input buffer
        variable '#tib',number_t_i_b,0

        ; dp - ( -- addr ) first free cell in the dictionary
        variable 'dp',dp,freemem

        ; base - ( -- addr ) number base
        variable 'base',base,10

        ; last - ( -- addr ) the last word to be defined
        ; NOTE: The label "final:" must be placed immediately before
        ; the last word defined in this file. If new words are added,
        ; make sure they're either added before the "final:" label
        ; or the "final:" label is moved to the position immediately
        ; before the last word added.
        variable 'last',last,final

        ; tib - ( -- addr ) address of the input buffer
        constant 'tib',t_i_b,32768

; -------------------
; Initialisation
; -------------------

; abort - ( -- ) initialise Itsy then jump to interpret
        primitive 'abort',abort
        mov ax,word[val_number_t_i_b]  ; Load AX with the value contained
                                       ; in the data field of #tib (which
                                       ; was pre-defined above as 0).
        mov word[val_to_in],ax         ; Save the same number to >in.
        xor bp,bp                      ; Clear the bp register, which is going
                                       ; to be used as the return stack
                                       ; pointer. Since it'll first be
                                       ; decremented when a value is pushed
                                       ; onto it, this means that the first
                                       ; value pushed onto the return stack
                                       ; will be stored at 0FFFEh and 0FFFFh,
                                       ; the very end of memory space, and
                                       ; the stack will grow downward from
                                       ; there.
        mov word[val_state],bp         ; Clear the value of state.
        mov sp,stack0                  ; Set the stack pointer to the value
                                       ; defined above.
        mov si,xt_interpret+2          ; Initialize Itsy's instruction pointer
                                       ; to the outer interpreter loop.
        jmp next                       ; Jump to the inner interpreter and
                                       ; actually start running Itsy.

; -------------------
; Compilation
; -------------------

; , - ( x -- ) compile x to the current definition.
;    Stores the number on the stack to the memory location currently
;    pointed to by dp.
        primitive ',',comma
        mov di,word[val_dp] ; Put the value of dp into the DI register.
        xchg ax,bx          ; Move the top of the stack into AX.
        stosw               ; Store the 16-bit value in AX directly
                            ; into the address pointed to by DI, and
                            ; automatically increment DI in the
                            ; process.
        mov word[val_dp],di ; Store the incremented value in DI as the
                            ; new value for the dictionary pointer.
        pop bx              ; Pop the new stack top into its proper place.
        jmp next            ; Go do the next word.

; lit - ( -- ) push the value in the cell straight after lit.
;   lit is the word that is compiled into a definition when you put a
;   "literal" number in a Forth definition. When your word is compiled,
;   the CFA of lit gets stored in the definition followed immediately
;   by the value of the number you put into the code. At run time, lit
;   pushes the value of your number onto the stack.
        primitive 'lit',lit
        push bx      ; Push the value in BX to the stack, so that now it'll
                     ; be 2nd from the top on the stack. The old value is
                     ; still in BX, though. Now we need to get the new
                     ; value into BX.
        lodsw        ; Load into the AX register the 16-bit value pointed
                     ; to by the SI register (Itsy's instruction pointer,
                     ; which this op then automatically increments SI by 2).
                     ; The net result is that we just loaded into AX the
                     ; 16-bit data immediately following the call to lit,
                     ; which'll be the data that lit is supposed to load.
        xchg ax,bx   ; Now swap the contents of the AX and BX registers.
                     ; lit's data is now in BX, the top of the stack, where
                     ; we want it. Slick, eh?
        jmp next     ; Go do the next word.

; -------------------
; Stack
; -------------------

; rot - ( x y z -- y z x ) rotate x, y and z.
;   Standard Forth word that extracts number 3rd from the top of the stack
;   and puts it on the top, effectively rotating the top 3 values.
        primitive 'rot',rote
        pop dx       ; Unload "y" from the stack.
        pop ax       ; Unload "x" from the stack. Remember that "z" is
                     ; already in BX.
        push dx      ; Push "y" back onto the stack.
        push bx      ; Push "z" down into the stack on top of "y".
        xchg ax,bx   ; Swap "x" into the BX register so that it's now
                     ; at the top of the stack.
        jmp next     ; Go do the next word.

; drop - ( x -- ) remove x from the stack.
        primitive 'drop',drop
        pop bx       ; Pop the 2nd item on the stack into the BX register,
                     ; writing over the item that was already at the top
                     ; of the stack in BX. It's that simple.
        jmp next     ; Go do the next word.

; dup - ( x -- x x ) add a copy of x to the stack
        primitive 'dup',dupe
        push bx      ; Remember that BX is the top of the stack. Push an
                     ; extra copy of what's in BX onto the stack.
        jmp next     ; Go do the next word.

; # swap - ( x y -- y x ) exchange x and y
        primitive 'swap',swap
        pop ax       ; Pop "x", the number 2nd from the top, into AX.
        push bx      ; Push "y", the former top of the stack.
        xchg ax,bx   ; Swap "x" into BX to become the new stack top. We
                     ; don't care what happens to the value of "y" that
                     ; ends up in AX because that value is now safely
                     ; in the stack.
        jmp next     ; Go do the next word.

; -------------------
; Maths / Logic
; -------------------

; + - ( x y -- z) calculate z=x+y then return z
        primitive '+',plus
        pop ax       ; Pop the value of "x" off of the stack.
        add bx,ax    ; Add "x" to the value of "y" that's at the top of the
                     ; stack in the BX register. The way the opcode is
                     ; written, the result is left in the BX register,
                     ; conveniently at the top of the stack.
        jmp next     ; Go do the next word.

; = - ( x y -- flag ) return true if x=y
        primitive '=',equals
        pop ax     ; Get the "x" value into a register.
        sub bx,ax  ; Perform BX-AX (or y-x)and leave result in BX. If x and
                   ; y are equal, this will result in a 0 in BX. But a zero
                   ; is a false flag in just about all Forth systems, and we
                   ; want a TRUE flag if the numbers are equal. So...
        sub bx,1   ; Subtract 1 from it. If we had a zero before, now we've
                   ; got a -1 (or 0ffffh), and a carry flag was generated.
                   ; Any other value in BX will not generate a carry.
        sbb bx,bx  ; This has the effect of moving the carry bit into the BX
                   ; register. So, if the numbers were not equal, then the
                   ; "sub bx,1" didn't generate a carry, so the result will
                   ; be a 0 in the BX (numbers were not equal, result is
                   ; false). If the original numbers on the stack were equal,
                   ; though, then the carry bit was set and then copied
                   ; into the BX register to act as our true flag.
                   ; This may seem a bit cryptic, but it produces smaller
                   ; code and runs faster than a bunch of conditional jumps
                   ; and immediate loads would.
        jmp next   ; Go do the next word.

; -------------------
; Peek and Poke
; -------------------

; @ - ( addr -- x ) read x from addr
; "Fetch", as the name of this word is pronounced, reads a 16-bit number from
; a given memory address, the way the Basic "peek" command does, and leaves
; it at the top of the stack.
        primitive '@',fetch
        mov bx,word[bx]  ; Read the value in the memory address pointed to by
                         ; the BX register and move that value directly into
                         ; BX, replacing the address at the top of the stack.
        jmp next         ; Go do the next word.

; ! - ( x addr -- ) store x at addr
; Similar to @, ! ("store") writes a value directly to a memory address, like
; the Basic "poke" command.
        primitive '!',store
        pop word[bx]  ; Okay, this is a bit slick. All in one opcode, we pop
                      ; the number that's 2nd from the top of the stack
                      ; (i.e. "x" in the argument list) and send it directly
                      ; to the memory address pointed to by BX (the address
                      ; at the top of the stack).
        pop bx        ; Pop whatever was 3rd from the top of the stack into
                      ; the BX register to become the new TOS.
        jmp next      ; Go do the next word.

; -------------------
; Inner Interpreter
; -------------------

; This routine is the very heart of the Forth system. After execution, all
; Forth words jump to this routine, which pulls up the code field address
; of the next word to be executed and then executes it. Note that next
; doesn't have a header of its own.
next    lodsw         ; Load into the AX register the 16-bit value pointed
                      ; to by the SI register (Itsy's instruction pointer,
                      ; which this op then automatically increments SI by 2).
                      ; The net result is that we just loaded into AX the
                      ; CFA of the next word to be executed and left the
                      ; instruction pointer pointing to the word that
                      ; follows the next one.
        xchg di,ax    ; Move the CFA of the next word into the DI register.
                      ; We have to do this because the 8086 doesn't have
                      ; an opcode for "jmp [ax]".
        jmp word[di]  ; Jump and start executing code at the address pointed
                      ; to by the value in the DI register.

; -------------------
; Flow Control
; -------------------

; 0branch - ( x -- ) jump if x is zero
; This is the primitive word that's compiled as the runtime code in
; an IF...THEN statement. The number compiled into the word's definition
; immediately after 0branch is the address of the word in the definition
; that we're branching to. That address gets loaded into the instruction
; pointer. In essence, this word sees a false flag (i.e. a zero) and
; then jumps over the words that comprise the "do this if true" clause
; of an IF...ELSE...THEN statement.
        primitive '0branch',zero_branch
        lodsw        ; Load into the AX register the 16-bit value pointed
                     ; to by the SI register (Itsy's instruction pointer,
                     ; which this op then automatically increments SI by 2).
                     ; The net result is that we just loaded into AX the
                     ; CFA of the next word to be executed and left the
                     ; instruction pointer pointing to the word that
                     ; follows the next one.
        test bx,bx   ; See if there's a 0 at the top of the stack.
        jne zerob_z  ; If it's not zero, jump.
        xchg ax,si   ; If the flag is a zero, we want to move the CFA of
                     ; the word we want to branch to into the Forth
                     ; instruction pointer. If the TOS was non-zero, the
                     ; instruction pointer is left still pointing to the CFA
                     ; of the word that follows the branch reference.
zerob_z pop bx       ; Throw away the flag and move everything on the stack
                     ; up by one spot.
        jmp next     ; Oh, you know what this does by now...

; branch - ( addr -- ) unconditional jump
; This is one of the pieces of runtime code that's compiled by
; BEGIN/WHILE/REPEAT, BEGIN/AGAIN, and BEGIN/UNTIL loops. As with 0branch,
; the number compiled into the dictionary immediately after the branch is
; the address of the word in the definition that we're branching to.
        primitive 'branch',branch
        mov si,word[si]  ; The instruction pointer has already been
                         ; incremented to point to the address immediately
                         ; following the branch statement, which means it's
                         ; pointing to where our branch-to address is
                         ; stored. This opcode takes the value pointed to
                         ; by the SI register and loads it directly into
                         ; the SI, which is used as Forth's instruction
                         ; pointer.
        jmp next

; execute - ( xt -- ) call the word at xt
        primitive 'execute',execute
        mov di,bx     ; Move the jump-to address to the DI register.
        pop bx        ; Pop the next number on the stack into the TOS.
        jmp word[di]  ; Jump to the address pointed to by the DI register.

; exit - ( -- ) return from the current word
        primitive 'exit',exit
        mov si,word[bp]  ; The BP register is used as Itsy's return stack
                         ; pointer. The value at its top is the address of
                         ; the instruction being pointed to before the word
                         ; currently being executed was called. This opcode
                         ; loads that address into the SI register.
        inc bp           ; Now we have to increment BP twice to do a manual
                         ; "pop" of the return stack pointer.
        inc bp           ; 
        jmp next         ; We jump to next with the SI now having the address
                         ; pointing into the word that called the one we're
                         ; finishing up now. The result is that next will go
                         ; back into that calling word and pick up where it
                         ; left off earlier.

; -------------------
; String
; -------------------

; count - ( addr -- addr2 len )
; count is given the address of a counted string (like the name field of a
; word definition in Forth, with the first byte being the number of
; characters in the string and immediately followed by the characters
; themselves). It returns the length of the string and a pointer to the
; first actual character in the string.
        primitive 'count',count
        inc bx             ; Increment the address past the length byte so
                           ; it now points to the actual string.
        push bx            ; Push the new address onto the stack.
        mov bl,byte[bx-1]  ; Move the length byte into the lower half of
                           ; the BX register.
        mov bh,0           ; Load a 0 into the upper half of the BX reg.
        jmp next

; >number - ( double addr len -- double2 addr2 zero    ) if successful, or
;           ( double addr len -- int     addr2 nonzero ) on error.
; Convert a string to an unsigned double-precision integer.
; addr points to a string of len characters which >number attempts to
; convert to a number using the current number base. >number returns
; the portion of the string which can't be converted, if any.
; Note that, as is standard for most Forths, >number attempts to
; convert a number into a double (most Forths also leave it as a double
; if they find a decimal point, but >number doesn't check for that) and
; that it's called with a dummy double value already on the stack.
; On return, if the top of the stack is 0, the number was successfully
; converted. If the top of the stack is non-zero, there was an error.
        primitive '>number',to_number
                              ; Start out by loading values from the stack
                              ; into various registers. Remember that the
                              ; top of the stack, the string length, is
                              ; already in bx.
        pop di                ; Put the address into di.
        pop cx                ; Put the high word of the double value into cx
        pop ax                ; and the low word of the double value into ax.
to_numl test bx,bx            ; Test the length byte.
        je to_numz            ; If the string's length is zero, we're done.
                              ; Jump to end.
        push ax               ; Push the contents of ax (low word) so we can
                              ; use it for other things.
        mov al,byte[di]       ; Get the next byte in the string.
        cmp al,'a'            ; Compare it to a lower-case 'a'.
        jc to_nums            ; "jc", "jump if carry", is a little cryptic.
                              ; I think a better choice of mnemonic would be
                              ; "jb", "jump if below", for understanding
                              ; what's going on here. Jump if the next byte
                              ; in the string is less than 'a'. If the chr
                              ; is greater than or equal to 'a', then it may
                              ; be a digit larger than 9 in a hex number.
        sub al,32             ; Subtract 32 from the character. If we're
                              ; converting hexadecimal input, this'll have
                              ; the effect of converting lower case to
                              ; upper case.
to_nums cmp al,'9'+1          ; Compare the character to whatever character
                              ; comes after '9'.
        jc to_numg            ; If it's '9' or less, it's possibly a decimal
                              ; digit. Jump for further testing.
        cmp al,'A'            ; Compare the character with 'A'.
        jc to_numh            ; If it's one of those punctuation marks
                              ; between '9' and 'A', we've got an error.
                              ; Jump to the end.
        sub al,7              ; The character is a potentially valid digit
                              ; for a base larger than 10. Resize it so
                              ; that 'A' becomes the digit for 11, 'B'
                              ; signifies a 11, etc.
to_numg sub al,48             ; Convert the digit to its corresponding
                              ; number. This op could also have been
                              ; written as "sub al,'0'"
        mov ah,0              ; Clear the ah register. The AX reg now
                              ; contains the numeric value of the new digit.
        cmp al,byte[val_base] ; Compare the digit's value to the base.
        jnc to_numh           ; If the digit's value is above or equal to
                              ; to the base, we've got an error. Jump to end.
                              ; (I think using "jae" would be less cryptic.)
                              ; (NASM's documentation doesn't list jae as a
                              ; valid opcode, but then again, it doesn't
                              ; list jnc in its opcode list either.)
        xchg ax,dx            ; Save the digit value in AX by swapping it
                              ; the contents of DX. (We don't care what's
                              ; in DX; it's scratchpad.)
        pop ax                ; Recall the low word of our accumulated
                              ; double number and load it into AX.
        push dx               ; Save the digit value. (The DX register
                              ; will get clobbered by the upcoming mul.)
        xchg ax,cx            ; Swap the low and high words of our double
                              ; number. AX now holds the high word, and
                              ; CX the low.
        mul word[val_base]    ; 16-bit multiply the high word by the base.
                              ; High word of product is in DX, low in AX.
                              ; But we don't need the high word. It's going
                              ; to get overwritten by the next mul.
        xchg ax,cx            ; Save the product of the first mul to the CX
                              ; register and put the low word of our double
                              ; number back into AX.
        mul word[val_base]    ; 16-bit multiply the low word of our converted
                              ; double number by the base, then add the high
        add cx,dx             ; word of the product to the low word of the
                              ; first mul (i.e. do the carry).
        pop dx                ; Recall the digit value, then add it in to
        add ax,dx             ; the low word of our accumulated double-
                              ; precision total.
                              ; NOTE: One might think, as I did at first,
                              ; that we need to deal with the carry from
                              ; this operation. But we just multiplied
                              ; the number by the base, and then added a
                              ; number that's already been checked to be
                              ; smaller than the base. In that case, there
                              ; will never be a carry out from this
                              ; addition. Think about it: You multiply a
                              ; number by 10 and get a new number whose
                              ; lowest digit is a zero. Then you add another
                              ; number less than 10 to it. You'll NEVER get
                              ; a carry from adding zero and a number less
                              ; than 10.
        dec bx                ; Decrement the length.
        inc di                ; Inc the address pointer to the next byte
                              ; of the string we're converting.
        jmp to_numl           ; Jump back and convert any remaining
                              ; characters in the string.
to_numz push ax               ; Push the low word of the accumulated total
                              ; back onto the stack.
to_numh push cx               ; Push the high word of the accumulated total
                              ; back onto the stack.
        push di               ; Push the string address back onto the stack.
                              ; Note that the character count is still in
                              ; BX and is therefore already at the top of
                              ; the stack. If BX is zero at this point,
                              ; we've successfully converted the number.
        jmp next              ; Done. Return to caller.

; -----------------------
; Terminal Input / Output
; -----------------------

; accept - ( addr len -- len2 ) read a string from the terminal
; accept reads a string of characters from the terminal. The string
; is stored at addr and can be up to len characters long.
; accept returns the actual length of the string.
        primitive 'accept',accept
        pop di        ; Pop the address of the string buffer into DI.
        xor cx,cx     ; Clear the CX register.
acceptl call getchar  ; Do the bios call to get a chr from the keyboard.
        cmp al,8      ; See if it's a backspace (ASCII character 08h).
        jne acceptn   ; If not, jump for more testing.
        jcxz acceptb  ; "Jump if CX=0". If the user typed a backspace but
                      ; there isn't anything in the buffer to erase, jump
                      ; to the code that'll beep at him to let him know.
        call outchar  ; User typed a backspace. Go ahead and output it.
        mov al,' '    ; Then output a space to wipe out the character that
        call outchar  ; the user had just typed.
        mov al,8      ; Then output another backspace to put the cursor
        call outchar  ; back into position to read another character.
        dec cx        ; We just deleted a character. Now we need to decrement
        dec di        ; both the counter and the buffer pointer.
        jmp acceptl   ; Then go back for another character.
acceptn cmp al,13     ; See if the input chr is a carriage return.
        je acceptz    ; If so, we're done. jump to the end of the routine.
        cmp cx,bx     ; Compare current string length to the maximum allowed.
        jne accepts   ; If the string's not too long, jump.
acceptb mov al,7      ; User's input is unusable in some way. Send the
        call outchar  ; BEL chr to make a beep sound to let him know.
        jmp acceptl   ; Then go back and let him try again.
accepts stosb         ; Save the input character into the buffer. Note that
                      ; this opcode automatically increments the pointer
                      ; in the DI register.
        inc cx        ; But we have to increment the length counter manually.
        call outchar  ; Echo the input character back to the display.
        jmp acceptl   ; Go back for another character.
acceptz jcxz acceptb  ; If the buffer is empty, beep at the user and go
                      ; back for more input.
        mov al,13     ; Send a carriage return to the display...
        call outchar  ; 
        mov al,10     ; ...followed by a linefeed.
        call outchar  ; 
        mov bx,cx     ; Move the count to the top of the stack.
        jmp next      ; 

; word - ( char -- addr ) parse the next word in the input buffer
; word scans the "terminal input buffer" (whose address is given by the
; system constant tib) for words to execute, starting at the current
; address stored in the input buffer pointer >in. The character on the
; stack when word is called is the one that the code will look for as
; the separator between words. 999 times out of 1000,; this is going to
; be a space.
        primitive 'word',word
        mov di,word[val_dp]           ; Load the dictionary pointer into DI.
                                      ; This is going to be the address that
                                      ; we copy the input word to. For the
                                      ; sake of tradition, let's call this
                                      ; scratchpad area the "pad".
        push di                       ; Save the pad pointer to the stack.
        mov dx,bx                     ; Copy the word separator to DX.
        mov bx,word[val_t_i_b]        ; Load the address of the input buffer
        mov cx,bx                     ; into BX, and save a copy to CX.
        add bx,word[val_to_in]        ; Add the value of >in to the address
                                      ; of tib to get a pointer into the
                                      ; buffer.
        add cx,word[val_number_t_i_b] ; Add the value of #tib to the address
                                      ; of tib to get a pointer to the last
                                      ; chr in the input buffer.
wordf   cmp cx,bx                     ; Compare the current buffer pointer to
                                      ; the end-of-buffer pointer.
        je wordz                      ; If we've reached the end, jump.
        mov al,byte[bx]               ; Get the next chr from the buffer
        inc bx                        ; and increment the pointer.
        cmp al,dl                     ; See if it's the separator.
        je wordf                      ; If so, jump.
wordc   inc di                        ; Increment our pad pointer. Note that
                                      ; if this is our first time through the
                                      ; routine, we're incrementing to the
                                      ; 2nd address in the pad, leaving the
                                      ; first byte of it empty.
        mov byte[di],al               ; Write the new chr to the pad.
        cmp cx,bx                     ; Have we reached the end of the
                                      ; input buffer?
        je wordz                      ; If so, jump.
        mov al,byte[bx]               ; Get another byte from the input
        inc bx                        ; buffer and increment the pointer.
        cmp al,dl                     ; Is the new chr a separator?
        jne wordc                     ; If not, go back for more.
wordz   mov byte[di+1],32             ; Write a space at the end of the text
                                      ; we've written so far to the pad.
        mov ax,word[val_dp]           ; Load the address of the pad into AX.
        xchg ax,di                    ; Swap the pad address with the pad
        sub ax,di                     ; pointer then subtract to get the
                                      ; length of the text in the pad.
                                      ; The result goes into AX, leaving the
                                      ; pad address in DI.
        mov byte[di],al               ; Save the length byte into the first
                                      ; byte of the pad.
        sub bx,word[val_t_i_b]        ; Subtract the base address of the
                                      ; input buffer from the pointer value
                                      ; to get the new value of >in...
        mov word[val_to_in],bx        ; ...then save it to its variable.
        pop bx                        ; Pop the value of the pad address
                                      ; that we saved earlier back out to
                                      ; the top of the stack as our return
                                      ; value.
        jmp next

; emit - ( char -- ) display char on the terminal
        primitive 'emit',emit
        xchg ax,bx    ; Move our output character to the AX register.
        call outchar  ; Send it to the display.
        pop bx        ; Pop the argument off the stack.
        jmp next

getchar mov ah,7  ; This headerless routine does an MS-DOS Int 21h call,
        int 021h  ; reading a character from the standard input device into
        mov ah,0  ; the AL register. We start out by putting a 7 into AH to
        ret       ; identify the function we want to perform. The character
                  ; gets returned in AL, and then we manually clear out
                  ; AH so that we can have a 16-bit result in AX.

outchar xchg ax,dx  ; This headerless routine does an MS-DOS Int 21h call,
        mov ah,2    ; sending a character in the DL register to the standard
        int 021h    ; output device. The 2 in the AH register identifies what
        ret         ; function we want to perform.

; -----------------------
; Dictionary Search
; -----------------------

; find - ( addr -- addr2 flag ) look up word in the dictionary
; find looks in the Forth dictionary for a word with the name given in the
; counted string at addr. One of the following will be returned:
;   flag =  0, addr2 = counted string --> word was not found
;   flag =  1, addr2 = call address   --> word is immediate
;   flag = -1, addr2 = call address   --> word is not immediate
        primitive 'find',find
        mov di,val_last    ; Get the address of the link field of the last
                           ; word in the dictionary. Put it in DI.
findl   push di            ; Save the link field pointer.
        push bx            ; Save the address of the name we're looking for.
        mov cl,byte[bx]    ; Copy the length of the string into CL
        mov ch,0           ; Clear CH to make a 16 bit counter.
        inc cx             ; Increment the counter.
findc   mov al,byte[di+2]  ; Get the length byte of whatever word in the
                           ; dictionary we're currently looking at.
        and al,07Fh        ; Mask off the immediate bit.
        cmp al,byte[bx]    ; Compare it with the length of the string.
        je findm           ; If they're the same, jump.
        pop bx             ; Nope, can't be the same if the lengths are
        pop di             ; different. Pop the saved values back to regs.
        mov di,word[di]    ; Get the next link address.
        test di,di         ; See if it's zero. If it's not, then we've not
        jne findl          ; hit the end of the dictionary yet. Then jump
                           ; back and check the next word in the dictionary.
findnf  push bx            ; End of dictionary. Word wasn't found. Push the
                           ; string address to the stack.
        xor bx,bx          ; Clear the BX register (make a "false" flag).
        jmp next           ; Return to caller.
findm   inc di             ; The lengths match, but do the chrs? Increment
                           ; the link field pointer. (That may sound weird,
                           ; especially on the first time through this loop.
                           ; But remember that, earlier in the loop, we
                           ; loaded the length byte out the dictionary by an
                           ; indirect reference to DI+2. We'll do that again
                           ; in a moment, so what in effect we're actually
                           ; doing here is incrementing what's now going to
                           ; be treated as a string pointer for the name in
                           ; the dictionary as we compare the characters
                           ; in the strings.)
        inc bx             ; Increment the pointer to the string we're
                           ; checking.
        loop findc         ; Decrements the counter in CX and, if it's not
                           ; zero yet, loops back. The same code that started
                           ; out comparing the length bytes will go through
                           ; and compare the characters in the string with
                           ; the chrs in the dictionary name we're pointing
                           ; at.
        pop bx             ; If we got here, then the strings match. The
                           ; word is in the dictionary. Pop the string's
                           ; starting address and throw it away. We don't
                           ; need it now that we know we're looking at a
                           ; defined word.
        pop di             ; Restore the link field address for the dictionary
                           ; word whose name we just looked at.
        mov bx,1           ; Put a 1 at the top of the stack.
        inc di             ; Increment the pointer past the link field to the
        inc di             ; name field.
        mov al,byte[di]    ; Get the length of the word's name.
        test al,080h       ; See if it's an immediate.
        jne findi          ; "test" basically performs an AND without
                           ; actually changing the register. If the
                           ; immediate bit is set, we'll have a non-zero
                           ; result and we'll skip the next instruction,
                           ; leaving a 1 in BX to represent that we found
                           ; an immediate word.
        neg bx             ; But if it's not an immediate word, we fall
                           ; through and generate a -1 instead to get the
                           ; flag for a non-immediate word.
findi   and ax,31          ; Mask off all but the valid part of the name's
                           ; length byte.
        add di,ax          ; Add the length to the name field address then
        inc di             ; add 1 to get the address of the code field.
        push di            ; Push the CFA onto the stack.
        jmp next           ; We're done.

; -----------------------
; Colon Definition
; -----------------------

; : - ( -- ) define a new Forth word, taking the name from the input buffer.
; Ah! We've finally found a word that's actually defined as a Forth colon
; definition rather than an assembly language routine! Partly, anyway; the
; first part is Forth code, but the end is the assembly language run-time
; routine that, incidentally, executes Forth colon definitions. Notice that
; the first part is not a sequence of opcodes, but rather is a list of
; code field addresses for the words used in the definition. In each code
; field of each defined word is an "execution tag", or "xt", a pointer to
; the runtime code that executes the word. In a Forth colon definition, this
; is going to be a pointer to the docolon routine we see in the second part
; of the definition of colon itself below.
        colon ':',colon
        dw xt_lit,-1       ; If you write a Forth routine where you put an
                           ; integer number right in the code, such as the
                           ; 2 in the phrase, "dp @ 2 +", lit is the name
                           ; of the routine that's called at runtime to put
                           ; that integer on the stack. Here, lit pushes
                           ; the -1 stored immediately after it onto the
                           ; stack.
        dw xt_state        ; The runtime code for a variable leaves its
                           ; address on the stack. The address of state,
                           ; in this case.
        dw xt_store        ; Store that -1 into state to tell the system
                           ; that we're switching from interpret mode into
                           ; compile mode. Other than creating the header,
                           ; colon doesn't actually compile the words into
                           ; the new word. That task is performed in
                           ; interpret, but it needs this new value stored
                           ; into state to tell it to do so.
        dw xt_create       ; Now we call the word that's going to create the
                           ; header for the new colon definition we're going
                           ; to compile.
        dw xt_do_semi_code ; Write, into the code field of the header we just
                           ; created, the address that immediately follows
                           ; this statement: the address of the docolon
                           ; routine, which is the code that's responsible
                           ; for executing the colon definition we're
                           ; creating.
docolon dec bp             ; Here's the runtime code for colon words.
        dec bp             ; Basically, what docolon does is similar to
                           ; calling a subroutine, in that we have to push
                           ; the return address to the stack. Since the 80x86
                           ; doesn't directly support more than one stack and
                           ; the "real" stack is used for data, we have to
                           ; operate the Forth virtual machine's return stack
                           ; manually. So, first, we manually decrement the
                           ; return stack pointer twice to point to where
                           ; we're going to save the return address.
        mov word[bp],si    ; Then we write that address directly from the
                           ; instruction pointer to that location.
        lea si,[di+2]      ; We now have to tell Forth to start running the
                           ; words in the colon definition we just started.
                           ; The value in DI was left pointing at the code
                           ; field of the word that we just started that just
                           ; jumped into docolon. By loading into the
                           ; instruction pointer the value that's 2 bytes
                           ; later, at the start of the data field, we're
                           ; loading into the IP the address of the first
                           ; word in that definition. Execution of the other
                           ; words in that definition will occur in sequence
                           ; from here on.
        jmp next           ; Now that we're pointing to the correct
                           ; instruction, go do it.

; ; - ( -- ) complete the Forth word being compiled
        colon ';',semicolon,immediate
                           ; Note above that ; is immediate, the first such
                           ; word we've seen here. It needs to be so because
                           ; it's used only during the compilation of a colon
                           ; definition and we want it to execute rather than
                           ; just being stored in the definition.
        dw xt_lit,xt_exit  ; Put the address of the code field of exit onto
                           ; the stack.
        dw xt_comma        ; Store it into the dictionary.
        dw xt_lit,0        ; Now put a zero on the stack...
        dw xt_state        ; along with the address of the state variable.
        dw xt_store        ; Store the 0 into state to indicate that we're
                           ; done compiling a word and are now back into
                           ; interpret mode.
        dw xt_exit         ; exit is the routine that finishes up the
                           ; execution of a colon definition and jumps to
                           ; next in order to start execution of the next
                           ; word.

; -----------------------
; Headers
; -----------------------

; create - ( -- ) build a header for a new word in the dictionary, taking
; the name from the input buffer
        colon 'create',create
        dw xt_dp,xt_fetch   ; Get the current dictionary pointer.
        dw xt_last,xt_fetch ; Get the LFA of the last word in the dictionary.
        dw xt_comma         ; Save the value of last at the current point in
                            ; the dictionary to become the link field for
                            ; the header we're creating. Remember that comma
                            ; automatically increments the value of dp.
        dw xt_last,xt_store ; Save the address of the link field we just
                            ; created as the new value of last.
        dw xt_lit,32        ; Parse the input buffer for the name of the
        dw xt_word          ; word we're creating, using a space for the
                            ; separation character when we invoke word.
                            ; Remember that word copies the parsed name
                            ; as a counted string to the location pointed
                            ; to by dp, which not coincidentally is
                            ; exactly what and where we need it for the
                            ; header we're creating.
        dw xt_count         ; Get the address of the first character of the
                            ; word's name, and the name's length.
        dw xt_plus          ; Add the length to the address to get the addr
                            ; of the first byte after the name, then store
        dw xt_dp,xt_store   ; that address as the new value of dp.
        dw xt_lit,0         ; Put a 0 on the stack, and store it as a dummy
        dw xt_comma         ; placeholder in the new header's CFA.
        dw xt_do_semi_code  ; Write, into the code field of the header we just
                            ; created, the address that immediately follows
                            ; this statement: the address of the dovar
                            ; routine, which is the code that's responsible
                            ; for pushing onto the stack the data field
                            ; address of the word whose header we just
                            ; created when it's executed.
dovar   push bx             ; Push the stack to make room for the new value
                            ; we're about to put on top.
        lea bx,[di+2]       ; This opcode loads into bx whatever two plus the
                            ; value of the contents of DI might be, as opposed
                            ; to a "mov bx,[di+2]", which would move into BX
                            ; the value stored in memory at that location.
                            ; What we're actually doing here is calculating
                            ; the address of the data field that follows
                            ; this header so we can leave it on the stack.
        jmp next            ; 

; # (;code) - ( -- ) replace the xt of the word being defined with a pointer
; to the code immediately following (;code)
; The idea behind this compiler word is that you may have a word that does
; various compiling/accounting tasks that are defined in terms of Forth code
; when its being used to compile another word, but afterward, when the new
; word is executed in interpreter mode, you want your compiling word to do
; something else that needs to be coded in assembly. (;code) is the word that
; says, "Okay, that's what you do when you're compiling, but THIS is what
; you're going to do while executing, so look sharp, it's in assembly!"
; Somewhat like the word DOES>, which is used in a similar manner to define
; run-time code in terms of Forth words.
        primitive '(;code)',do_semi_code
        mov di,word[val_last] ; Get the LFA of the last word in dictionary
                              ; (i.e. the word we're currently in the middle
                              ; of compiling) and put it in DI. 
        mov al,byte[di+2]     ; Get the length byte from the name field.
        and ax,31             ; Mask off the immediate bit and leave only
                              ; the 5-bit integer length.
        add di,ax             ; Add the length to the pointer. If we add 3
                              ; to the value in DI at this point, we'll
                              ; have a pointer to the code field.
        mov word[di+3],si     ; Store the current value of the instruction
                              ; pointer into the code field. That value is
                              ; going to point to whatever follows (;code) in
                              ; the word being compiled, which in the case
                              ; of (;code) had better be assembly code.
        mov si,word[bp]       ; Okay, we just did something funky with the
                              ; instruction pointer; now we have to fix it.
                              ; Directly load into the instruction pointer
                              ; the value that's currently at the top of
                              ; the return stack.
        inc bp                ; Then manually increment the return stack
        inc bp                ; pointer.
        jmp next              ; Done. Go do another word.

; -----------------------
; Constants
; -----------------------

; constant - ( x -- ) create a new constant with the value x, taking the name
; from the input buffer
        colon 'constant',constant
        dw xt_create       ; Create the constant's header.
        dw xt_comma        ; Store the constant's value into the word's
                           ; data field.
        dw xt_do_semi_code ; Write, into the code field of the header we just
                           ; created, the address that immediately follows
                           ; this statement: the address of the doconst
                           ; routine, which is the code that's responsible
                           ; for pushing onto the stack the value that's
                           ; contained in the data field of the word whose
                           ; header we just created when that word is
                           ; invoked.
doconst push bx            ; Push the stack down.
        mov bx,word[di+2]  ; DI should be pointing to the constant's code
                           ; field. Load into the top of the stack the
                           ; value 2 bytes further down from the code field,
                           ; i.e. the constant's actual value.
        jmp next           ; 

; -----------------------
; Outer Interpreter
; -----------------------

; -------------------------------------------------------
; NOTE! The following line with the final: label MUST be
; immediately before the final word definition!
; -------------------------------------------------------


        colon 'interpret',interpret
interpt dw xt_number_t_i_b  ; Get the number of characters in the input
        dw xt_fetch         ; buffer.
        dw xt_to_in         ; Get the index into the input buffer.
        dw xt_fetch         ; 
        dw xt_equals        ; See if they're the same.
        dw xt_zero_branch   ; If not, it means there's still some text in
        dw intpar           ; the buffer. Go process it.
        dw xt_t_i_b         ; if #tib = >in, we're out of text and need to
        dw xt_lit           ; read some more. Put a 50 on the stack to tell
        dw 50               ; accept to read up to 50 more characters.
        dw xt_accept        ; Go get more input.
        dw xt_number_t_i_b  ; Store into #tib the actual number of characters
        dw xt_store         ; that accept read.
        dw xt_lit           ; Reposition >in to index the 0th byte in the
        dw 0                ; input buffer.
        dw xt_to_in         ; 
        dw xt_store         ; 
intpar  dw xt_lit           ; Put a 32 on the stack to represent an ASCII
        dw 32               ; space character. Then tell word to scan the
        dw xt_word          ; buffer looking for that character.
        dw xt_find          ; Once word has parsed out a string, have find
                            ; see if that string matches the name of any
                            ; words already defined in the dictionary.
        dw xt_dupe          ; Copy the flag returned by find, then jump if
        dw xt_zero_branch   ; it's a zero, meaning that the string doesn't
        dw intnf            ; match any defined word names.
        dw xt_state         ; We've got a word match. Are we interpreting or
        dw xt_fetch         ; do we want to compile it? See if find's flag
        dw xt_equals        ; matches the current value of state.
        dw xt_zero_branch   ; If so, we've got an immediate. Jump.
        dw intexc           ; 
        dw xt_comma         ; Not immediate. Store the word's CFA in the
        dw xt_branch        ; dictionary then jump to the end of the loop.
        dw intdone          ; 
intexc  dw xt_execute       ; We found an immediate word. Execute it then
        dw xt_branch        ; jump to the end of the loop.
        dw intdone          ; 
intnf   dw xt_dupe          ; Okay, it's not a word. Is it a number? Copy
                            ; the flag, which we've already proved is 0,
                            ; thereby creating a double-precision value of
                            ; 0 at the top of the stack. We'll need this
                            ; shortly when we call >number.
        dw xt_rote          ; Rotate the string's address to the top of
                            ; the stack. Note that it's still a counted
                            ; string.
        dw xt_count         ; Use count to split the string's length byte
                            ; apart from its text.
        dw xt_to_number     ; See if we can convert the text into a number.
        dw xt_zero_branch   ; If we get a 0 from 0branch, we got a good
        dw intskip          ; conversion. Jump and continue.
        dw xt_state         ; We had a conversion error. Find out whether
        dw xt_fetch         ; we're interpreting or compiling.
        dw xt_zero_branch   ; If state=0, we're interpreting. Jump
        dw intnc            ; further down.
        dw xt_last          ; We're compiling. Shut the compiler down in an
        dw xt_fetch         ; orderly manner. Get the LFA of the word we
        dw xt_dupe          ; were trying to compile. Set aside a copy of it,
        dw xt_fetch         ; then retrieve from it the LFA of the old "last
        dw xt_last          ; word" and resave that as the current last word.
        dw xt_store         ; 
        dw xt_dp            ; Now we have to save the LFA of the word we just
        dw xt_store         ; tried to compile back into the dictionary
                            ; pointer.
intnc   dw xt_abort         ; Whether we were compiling or interpreting,
                            ; either way we end up here if we had an
                            ; unsuccessful number conversion. Call abort
                            ; and reset the system.
intskip dw xt_drop          ; >number was successful! Drop the address and
        dw xt_drop          ; the high word of the double-precision numeric
                            ; value it returned. We don't need either. What's
                            ; left on the stack is the single-precision
                            ; number we just converted.
        dw xt_state         ; Are we compiling or interpreting?
        dw xt_fetch         ; 
        dw xt_zero_branch   ; If we're interpreting, jump on down.
        dw intdone          ; 
        dw xt_lit           ; No, John didn't stutter here. These 4 lines are
        dw xt_lit           ; how "['] lit , ," get encoded. We need to store
        dw xt_comma         ; lit's own CFA into the word, followed by the
        dw xt_comma         ; number we just converted from text input.
intdone dw xt_branch        ; Jump back to the beginning of the interpreter
        dw interpt          ; loop and process more input.


; That's it! So, there you have it! Only 33 named Forth words...
;     ,  @   >in  dup   base  word   abort   0branch   interpret
;     +  !   lit  swap  last  find   create  constant  (;code)
;     =  ;   tib  drop  emit  state  accept  >number
;     :  dp  rot  #tib  exit  count  execute
; ...plus 6 pieces of headerless code and run-time routines...
;     getchar  outchar  docolon  dovar  doconst  next
; ...are all that's required to produce a functional Forth interpreter
; capable of compiling colon definitions, only 978 bytes long! Granted,
; it's lacking a number of key critical words that make it nigh unto
; impossible to do anything useful, but this just goes to show just
; how small a functioning Forth system can be made.


  1. Has anyone managed to assemble this under osx? I tried
    nasm itsy.asm -fmacho -o itsy
    but it gags on the org operation on line 82 - I assume it's structured as a DOS .com file

    1. I'm relatively certain that this code isn't written for Unix/Linux operating systems. It's a shame, really. I also would have loved to test it on Ubuntu...

    2. You can run it on dosbox or qemu.

    3. I just committed my port to MacOS. I'm not 100% happy with it yet, but it runs all the itsy examples posted around. Here's the URL: https://github.com/dylanmc/itsy-linux

  2. In his closing words Mike mentioned the lack of some critical words

    1. Can some please eleborate on the subject?
      (Sorry about the double comment)